Boom of 78 rpm
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Disks with traverse recording and radial velocity of 78 rpm was the only type of record in this country for over 60 years. To the end of that period (early 1950s) instead of mechanical "pathephones", different devices for playing plates with electric drive of the disk and electronic amplifiers on radio valves came to be widely used. At first those were "electric pathephones" and then - electric players and radiogramophones of varied designs. The ordinary steel gramophone needle that had to be changed after playing only one side of the plate was ousted by a more wear-proof one with sapphire cap.

Approximately by the same time a synthetic substitute for the expensive imported shellac - polyvinyl cloride was found. The inscription about the new material was placed on labels of the disks of that time ("Shellacless - PVC") Plates made of shellac were turned out simultaneously. Collectors know that rather a pleasant scent that can be felt when opening a box with such disks.
The label (right) dating back to 1950s with an image of the sculpture "The Worker and Woman-Collective Farmer" by V.Mukhina is known at least in 10 versions for Aprelevsky works (not counting differences in colours and prints of inscriptions). Those interested can see all the versions

In those already far-off years the gramophone plate was a standard source of musical signals not only at home but also at small radio-centers and radio signalling points. Here you see a label of a special issue of the Civil Defense HQ - "Air Alarm" and "All Clear" signals. It is interesting to note that it bears the ordinary serial number of the record matrix.

The cited label of Leningrad Works, besides informative and decorative functions, bears another practical one. Stroboscopic marks are printed on it which enable to exactly set the speed of the disk's rotation.

Left - a label of Leningrad Works of early 1960s. Right - a label of "Ligo" factory of gramophone records in Riga (end 1950s).

In early 1960s a united All-Union Studio of Gramophone Records "Akkord" was set up, and in 1964 the All-Union Company of Gramophone Records "Melodija" was created, that merged all enterprises of the gramophone industry of the USSR.

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